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There are two primary types of public REITs: traded and non-traded. Publicly-traded REITs offer the benefits of liquidity, because it is traded openly on a stock exchange. However, this liquidity is likely to be priced into the value of the shares, resulting in a “liquidity premium”, or a cost that all investors pay for the ability to buy and sell the asset whenever they wish. The liquidity premium results in lower relative returns for all investors, regardless of whether or not they choose to sell their shares. Furthermore, publicly-traded REITs tend to be correlated to broader market volatility, meaning that the share value may fluctuate depending on how the stock market is doing, regardless of whether or not anything has changed with the underlying properties owned by the REIT.
Residual income is calculated as net income less a charge for the cost of capital. The charge is known as the equity charge and is calculated as the value of equity capital multiplied by the cost of equity or the required rate of return on equity. Given the opportunity cost of equity, a company can have positive net income but negative residual income.