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The underlying idea is that investors require a rate of return from their resources – i.e. equity – under the control of the firm's management, compensating them for their opportunity cost and accounting for the level of risk resulting. This rate of return is the cost of equity, and a formal equity cost must be subtracted from net income. Consequently, to create shareholder value, management must generate returns at least as great as this cost. Thus, although a company may report a profit on its income statement, it may actually be economically unprofitable; see Economic profit. It is thus possible that a value deemed positive using a traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) approach may be negative here. RI-based valuation is therefore a valuable complement to more traditional techniques.
3. Business: As I mentioned, not all businesses are created equal when it comes to residual income. Let’s take a look at a local taco stand. Sure, that taco stand might have loyal patrons and make the best damn steak taco you’ve ever had, but they also have to wake up every day and turn the lights on and fire up the grill to get paid for their special tacos. Versus, I own my own financial services business and we charge an asset management fee. So, literally tomorrow I am going to earn a fee whether I go in or not. Sure, I have to maintain relationships to keep earning that fee, but truly the income is residual because once I sign up one client I am going to make money off of their money perpetually. See the difference?
In equity valuation, residual income represents an economic earnings stream and valuation method for estimating the intrinsic value of a company's common stock. The residual income valuation model values a company as the sum of book value and the present value of expected future residual income. Residual income attempts to measure economic profit, which is the profit remaining after the deduction of opportunity costs for all sources of capital.
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